British

169 British awards were received by Old Bristolians, with several boys receiving more than one award. Below is information about each award achieved by an OB, in the order of precedence within the British military and civilian award systems.

Level 1

Number awarded to OBs: 2

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 29th January 1856 by Queen Victoria.

 

Information: The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration for valour “in the face of the enemy”. It can be awarded to members of the armed forces of any rank, and to civilians under military command for “most conspicuous bravery, or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy”. The award is usually presented to the recipient or their next of kin by the British monach at Buckingham Palace.

Awarded

James, Manley Angell

Lumsden, Frederick William

Victoria Cross (VC)

Number awarded to OBs: 3 

(An additional 1 was awarded pre-war)

Nationality of award: British

Founded: 18th May 1725 by George 1st

Information: The name comes from a medieval ceremony for creating a knight, which involved bathing, as a symbol of purification. It has three classes of members: Knights or Dames Grand Cross (GCB) – limited to 120, Knights Commander (KCB) or Dames Commander (DCB) – limited to 355, and Companions (CB) – limited to 1,925. Members of the Military Division of the award must be if the rank of Lieutenant Commander, Major, or Squadron Leader. They also must have been Mentioned in Despatches for distinction in combat.

Awarded

Lumsden, Frederick William

Openshaw, Thomas Horrocks

Weekes, Victor Herbert Thomas

Pre-War

Kelly, Francis Henry

Companion of the Bath (CB)
Level 2A

Number awarded to OBs: 6 (1 with First Bar, 1 with Third Bar)

Nationality of award: British

Founded: 6th September 1886 by Queen Victoria

Information: It is awarded for distinguished action by officers during wartime. While it is typically awarded to the rank of Major or higher, there have been exceptions where junior officers have been awarded the DSO. In WW1, 8,981 DSOs were awarded.

Awarded

Hardiman, Edgar Henry Malachi

Hardman, Reginald Stanley

Newth, Arthur Leslie Walter

Slade, Ernest Cowper

with One Bar

Olphert, Wybrants Joseph John

with Three Bars

Lumsden, Frederick William

Distinguished Service Order (DSO)

Number awarded to OBs: 5 Companions, 1 Pre-War

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 28th April 1918 by George, Prince Regent, later George IV

 

Information: The CMG is the sixth most senior order of chivalry, named in honour of St Michael and St George, both military saints. It is awarded to men and women who conduct significant non-military work in a foreign country. The Order has three classes: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross – limited to 125, Knight Commander or Dame Commander – limited to 375, and Companion – limited to 1750.

Awarded

Companion

Jones, Charles Herbert

Kelly, Francis Henry

Lees, Charles Henry Brownlow

Moline, Frank Herman

Weekes, Victor Herbert Thomas

Pre-War

Openshaw, Thomas Horrocks

Order of St. Michael and St. George (CMG)

Number awarded to OBs: 4 Officers (OBE), 2 Member (MBE)

 

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 4th June 1917 by King George V

 

Information: The Order is composed of five classes: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE), Knight Commander (KBE) or Dame Commander (DBE), Commander (CBE), Officer (OBE), Member (MBE).

Awarded

Officer

Gedye, Nicholas George

Gill, Ernest Walter Brudenell

Hiley, Wilfrid Edward

Protheroe, Arthur Havard

Member

Blake, George Shearsby

Watling, John Basil

Order of the British Empire (OBE, MBE)
Level 3A

Number awarded to OBs: 2

 

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 1901 as the Conspicuous Service Cross, it was renamed the Distinguished Service Cross in October 1914.

 

Information: It can be awarded to any Navy or Merchant Navy members, commissioned or warrant, beneath the rank of Lieutenant Commander. It is awarded for ‘gallantry during active operations against the enemy’.

Awarded

Grant, Gerald Gordon

Olphert, Wybrants Joseph John

Distinguished Service Cross (DSC)

Number awarded to OBs: 48, and 4 1st bars

Nationality of award: British

Founded: December 1914

Information: The Military Cross is the third-level military decoration for commissioned officers of the rank of Captain or below, and for Warrant Officers. It was awarded for “an act or acts of exemplary gallantry during active operations against the enemy on land…”. Bars were awarded in recognition of further gallantry.

Military Cross (MC)

Awarded

Barnes, Archie Fairbairn

Barnett, Percy John

Booker, Stanley Charles

Brown, Harold Bainbridge

Burnett, Donovan

Castle, Gilbert Stacey

Cole, Aubrey du Plat Thorold

Cooke, Reginald Charles

Davis, Harold Charles Edward

Day, Richard

Gardner, Bertie Charles 

Gilbert, John Wesley

Gough, Donald Lansdown

Grant, Stuart

Griffiths, Cuthbert Cyril

Hall, Vincent Bingham Bingham-

Hardiman, Edgar Henry Malachi

Haskins, Harold Stanley

Hill, Frederick Stanley

Awarded

Hobbs, Francis Bromley

Holdsworth, Joseph Arthur

James, Manley Angell

Just, Leonhardt Wolfgang

Just, Norman Wolfgang

King, Leonard

Lowe, Richard

Machon, Roy Ebdon

McKenzie, William George

Merrick, Horace

Morgan, Ernest Edmund [Leigh]

Newth, Arthur Leslie Walter

Newton, Clement Vaughan

Nichols, Jonas Edward

Nichols, Sidney Kenneth

Pakeman, Sidney Arnold

Parkinson, Leslie Gerald

Parsons, Cyril Gordon

Parsons, Kenneth Owen

Awarded

Pickles, Reginald Clarence Werrett

Pickthorn, Charles Edward Murray

Protheroe, Arthur Havard

Ridler, Frederick Arnold

Slade, Ernest Cowper

Stallon, Percival Vere

Stone, Frederick James

Stradling, Reginald Edward

Watson, Kenneth Charles Forrester

Watson, Stanley Herbert

Westlake, Harold William Guy

Wilson, Clifford Llewellyn

with 1st Bar

Brown, Harold Bainbridge

Day, Richard

Hall, Vincent Bingham Bingham-

Hill, Frederick Stanley

Number awarded to OBs: 1

 

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 3rd June 1918

 

Information: A military award for personnel of the Royal Air Force and other flying services. It is awarded for “an act or acts of valour, courage, or devotion to duty whilst flying in active operations against the enemy”. A bar can be added if a second event of valour occurs. During WW1, approximately 1100 DFCs were awarded, with 70 1st bars and 3 2nd bars.

Awarded

Golding, Herbert Melhuish

Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC)
Level 2B

Number awarded to OBs: 5

 

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 1854

 

Information: The award was originally instituted during the Crimean War. It was awarded for gallantry to non-commissioned officers of the British Army and other Commonwealth countries. The equivalent for commissioned officers is the Distinguished Service Order (DSO). Bars could also be added to the award in the event of further acts of gallantry.

Awarded

Black, Geoffrey Heslop

Gore, Robert William

Gould, Henry Leon

James, Edward Francis

Olds, Cyril Austin Patt

Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM)
Level 3B

Number awarded to OBs: 1

 

Nationality of Award: British

 

Founded: 14th October 1914.

 

Information: The DSM is awarded to non-commissioned personnel of the Royal Navy and other services for ‘bravery and resourcefulness’ on active service at sea. It is the ‘equivalent’ of the Distinguished Service Cross which is awarded to commissioned and warrant officers, although it ranks below this in order of precedence.

Awarded

Cavendish, James Robert Carnegie

Distinguished Service Medal (DSM)

Number awarded to OBs: 11, and 1 First Bar

 

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 25th March 1916

 

Information: The Military Medal is the equivalent of the Military Cross for non-commissioned ranks. It was awarded for bravery in battle on land.

Awarded

Abrahams, Kenneth Duncan

Bennett, Charles Elson

Black, Geoffrey Heslop

Keniston, Frederick Claude

Machin, Stuart Edward 

Pakeman, Frederick Joseph

Rose, Herbert Edward

Salter, Thomas Frederick

Sandy, Walter Fawkes

Strickland, Denys Joseph

with 1st Bar

Hutchings, Harold Frederick

Military Medal (MM)
Level 4
Mentioned in Despatches (MiD)

Number awarded to OBs: 60

 

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 1914

Information: Mentioned in Despatches means that a superior officer has sent a report of a soldiers conduct to the high command, as they were gallant or meritorious in the face of the enemy. Some higher decorations require that a soldier is first Mentioned in Despatches. The names of soldiers mentioned are published in the London Gazette.

Awarded

on One Occasion

Alford, Kenneth Field

Anderson, Claude Birkbeck Wright

Barry, Archibald Hastings

Bennett, Charles Elson

Bethell, Lionel John

Burdett, John Head

Cook, Walter Kingsmill

Davis, Francis Madensfield

Denniss, William Calvert

Esbester, Ernest Henry

Fonseca, Honoris Jose Muschamp d'Assis

Geake, Frank Henry

Glanvill, Heyman Wreford Wreford- 

Haskins, Harold Stanley

Hellyar, Richard Percival

Awarded

Hemmings, Frederick George

James, Edward Francis

James, Manley Angell

Lees, Charles Henry Brownlow

Machin, Lionel Gilbert

Moline, Frank Herman

Olphert, Wybrants Joseph John

Pickthorn, Charles Edward Murray

Small, Reginald George Douglas

Strickland, Denys Joseph

Watling, John Basil

Weekes, Victor Herbert Thomas

Westlake, Harold William Guy

Wilcox, Alfred George

Williams, Frank Henry 

Wise, William Henry

Awarded

on Two Occasions

Cavendish, Hugh Crawford

Gill, Ernest Walter Brudenell

Hardiman, Edgar Henry Malachi

Moxey, Percy

Newton, Clement Vaughan

Rose, Herbert Edward

Sherlock, William Whitaker

on Three Occasions

Blake, George Shearsby

Grace, Henry Edgar

Hardman, Reginald Stanley

Newth, Arthur Leslie Walter

Nichols, Sidney Kenneth

Protheroe, Arthur Havard

Most Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem

Awarded

Knight of Grace

Openshaw, Thomas Horrocks

Number awarded to OBs: 1 Knight of Grace

 

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 1888

Information: The Order of St. John of Jerusalem is a Royal Order of Chivalry instituted by Queen Victoria in 1888. It became associated with the St John Ambulance Brigade in 1887. People are recommended to be members by the Grand Council. Those chosen have generally been said to 'promote humanitarian and charitable work, aiding those in sickness, suffering, and/or danger'. The award sits somewhere between Level 3B, and Level 2B awards. However, the ranks within the Order of St John do 'not confer official rank in the order of precedence'. Members knighted in the order should not be addressed as 'Sir' or 'Dame', as they do not take precedence with the knights of the other British orders.

There are six ranks:

Bailiff/Dame Grand Cross

Knights/Dames of Justice or Grace

Commander/Chaplain

Officer

Serving Brother/Sister

Esquire

Long Service Awards

Number awarded to OBs: 3

 

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 19th December 1845

 

Information: It is awarded to recognise non-commissioned officers for meritorious service either in combat or non-combat situations. An annuity based on rank accompanied the award. Non-commissioned officers beneath the rank of Sergeant became eligible for the award during the First World War, but without the annuity. It was required that the recipient had served at least 20 years of service, and already hold the Long Service and Good Conduct Medal. No more than 49 a year can be awarded in the Royal Navy, 3 in the Royal Marines, 89 in the Army, and 60 in the Royal Air Force. These limits are not generally reached.

Awarded

Hall, John Stanley

James, Edward Francis

Waldron, Reginald George

Meritorious Service Medal (MSM)
Decoration for Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve

Awarded

Olphert, Wybrants Joseph John

Number awarded to OBs: 1

Nationality of award: British

 

Founded: 1908

 

Information: Also known as the 'Reserve Decoration', the award is presented to members of the Royal Navy Reserve who have served at least 15 years on active service. Service at War counted for double.